Advanced Seminar in Physics / Hautpseminar

Advanced Seminar 2024
[Photo: Photo: Francis Pratt/ISIS/Science and Technology Facilities Council]

Location: Faculty room 2.136
Time: Block Seminar
Wednesday 22. May 2024
Thursday 23. May 2024

Campus: 049500552S Advanced Seminar 5: Magnetism: from fundamental quantum phenomena, advanced methods to widespread applications

Submission of written summary (8-10 Pages) by 30. June 2024

Regeln Physikalisches Hauptseminar SoSe2024

Guidelines Advanced Seminar SoSe24

Please use the following link to complete a survey about the course:

From fundamental quantum phenomena, advanced methods to widespread applications

1. First and second order phase transition

  • Definition and properties from thermodynamics
  • Landau theory of phase transition
  • Critical behavior in second order phase transition
  • Examples in magnetic material and properties
  • Examples of first and second order phase transitions in condensed matter 

Theory of First order phase transitions by K. Binder
First order magneto-structural phase transition and associated multi-functional properties in magnetic solids,
Introduction to Phase transitions and critical phenomena by H. E. Stanley

2. Spin ice, spin glass and cluster glass compounds

  • What is magnetic monopole? Does it exist in the universe?
  • Electro-magnetic properties
  • Do we see them in condensed matter/magnetic materials (spin ice compound)
  • Residual entropy in spin ice compounds
  • Ingredients of glass formation in condensed matter
  • What is the difference between spin glass and cluster glass state
  • Examples of spin glass and cluster glass states in real materials
  • How to identify a glassy system and distinguish between spin glass and cluster glass?

Magnetic monopoles in spin ice by C. Castelnovo et al,
Measurement of the charge and current of magnetic monopoles in spin ice by S. T. Bramwel,
Spin glasses: An experimental Introduction by J. A. Mydosh
Spin glasses: redux: an updated experimental survey
and references therein

3. Magnetic frustration and Quantum spin liquid

  • What is the meaning of Geometrical frustration
  • What are the preliminary experimental signatures of a Quantum spin liquid state?
  • Examples observed in solid state physics and how they are detected in experiment?

Savary, L.; Balents, L. "Quantum spin liquids: a review". Reports on Progress in Physics. 80, 016502 (2017).
Yi Zhou, Kazushi Kanoda, and Tai-Kai Ng, Quantum spin liquid states, Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 025003 (2017)

4. Magnetic Skyrmions and Propagating spin excitations (Spin waves, magnons, Spinons)

  • What is magnetic Skyrmions?
  • Some examples where it is observed?
  • Application in Spintronic devices
  • What are Spin waves, magnon and Spinons?
  • Where are they observed?
  • Properties
  • How these excitations can be probed in real materials?

Magnetic Skyrmions: Basic properties and potential applications by S. Li et al
Physical foundation and basic properties of magnetic skyrmions, by A. N. Bogdanov, Nature reviews (2020)

5. Quantum magnetism using ultra-cold atoms

  • What is ultra-cold atom?
  • How we can manipulate them to mimic a real system?
  • Benefits of using them. How to different structures of ultra-cold atoms can be used to study fundamentals of condensed matter physics?
  • Any limitations?



6. Optically induced magnetization switching

  • Femtosecond optical pulse, how to produce ultra-fast laser pulses
  • How it can be used to manipulate a magnetic state? What is Optical switching of a magnetic state?
  • Application in spintronic devices



7. Neutron scattering

  • Why do we use neutrons for magnetic materials?
  • How do diffraction methods work?
  • What are elastic and inelastic neutron scatterings and how they are useful to understand a magnetic system?
  • Examples of applications in real materials


Neutron Diffraction: Principles, Instrumentation and application
Neutron Diffraction by Paramagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Substances by C. G. Shull et al (1951)
Application of neutron powder diffraction by Eric. H. Kisi, Oxford series


8. Muon spin rotation

  • Why do we use muons?
  • How to produce them?
  • How to use muons to probe magnetic state?

Muon spin spectroscopy, by A. D. Hiller (review article),
Blundell, S., De Renzi, R., Lancaster, T. & Pratt, F. Introduction to Muon Spectroscopy(Oxford Univ. Press, 2021).

9. Terahertz spectroscopy

  • What is Terahertz spectroscopy?
  • How to produce Terahertz radiation?
  • Energy scales involved?
  • Some examples how it can be used to probe a magnetic material?

Terahertz spectroscopy: Principles and applications by Susan L. Dexhemeir
Review of recent progress on THz spectroscopy of quantum materials: Superconductors, magnetic and topological materials, by Arnab Bera et al,
and references therein


10. Magnetic resonance and its application to Imaging in medical science

  • Basic principle of electron spin resonance techniques
  • What do you mean by Quality factor of a cavity?
  • Different types of electron spin resonance spectroscopy?
  • How these techniques can be used to study materials?
  • Application in various fields

Electron spin resonance, by Charles P. Poole
Electron spin resonance, by Abragam, B. Bleaney

11. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in Diamond for magnetic sensing

  • What are NV centers?
  • How to create NV centers?
  • Application in magnetometry

Creation of NV centers by Chemical vapor deposition….. by T. Luo et al, New Journal of Physics (2022),
Nitrogen-vacancy centers: Physics and application,


12. Magnetic memory devices

  • Volatile and non-volatile memory
  • Memory devices
  • Race track memory device

Magnetic memory: Fundamentals and technology by D. D. Tang and Y. J. Lee, Cambridge university press.
Magnetoresistive random access memory: Present and Future by S. Ikegawa et al,

13. Magnetic levitation

  • Superconductivity: basic properties
  • Why it levitates?
  • How and where it is used?

Superconductivity: A very short introduction by Stephen Blundell
Current state of magnetic levitation and its applications in polymers: A review
M. Hermansen et al., “Magnetic levitation by rotation,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 20, 044036 (2023).

14. Magnetism of Earth (Geomagnetism) and its importance on human life

  • Source of Earth magnetism
  • Strength of Earth’s magnetic field
  • Effect on Human being and on life in general

Introduction to Geomagnetism by United state geometrical survey

This image shows Sudip Pal

Sudip Pal


Electron Spin Resonance

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